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Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA turbinata Sars, for example, named after its unusual head shape, is known only from Southern Siberia. Here we sequence DNA of Daphnia from three mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, ND2) from 57 localities in Russia and Mongolia (the majority being from Southern Siberia) and place them in evolutionary context with existing data.

Our aim was to examine regional endemism of the Daphnia longispina complex in Southern Siberian; Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA improve the phylogenetic understanding with improved taxonomic and regional sampling, and to better understand the influence of Pleistocene glaciation on the biogeography of these lineages.

At least three lineages showed genetic evidence for endemism in Southern Siberia. There was strong support for D. Another endemic, Siberian D. Gene flow estimates among populations (based on FST values) were very low for clades of D. Our results support the notion that Southern Siberia is an important training region for cladocerans as it contained unexpected diversity of endemics (such as D.

Citation: Zuykova EI, Bochkarev NA, Taylor DJ, Kotov AA (2019) Unexpected endemism in the Daphnia longispina complex (Crustacea: Cladocera) in Southern Siberia. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0221527. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Data Availability: The newly obtained nucleotide sequences were deposited into the GenBank database under the following accession numbers: MN251883-MN251898, MK930508-MK930512, MK930467-MK930484, MK951805-MK951810 for the 12S gene; MK930485-MK930487, MK930489; MK930490; Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA MK930493 for the 16S gene; and MK930499-MK930505 for the ND2 gene (see S1 Table).

Funding: 12S and Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA sequening and all types of analysis is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-14-00325). DJT has no specific funding support. Water fleas (Crustacea: Cladocera) are model organisms for evolutionary biologists, hydrobiologists and biogeographers.

This application of molecular methods led to rapid progress in taxonomy and evolutionary biology. But the identification of "problematic" (e. As with fish, the significance of postglacial morphotypes for speciation and taxonomy remains actively researched. Often, existing morphological keys are inadequate to recognize divergent lineages related to D. It is obvious that the application of recent keybooks do not allow us to resolve the exact taxonomic status of problematic populationsadditional morphological investigations are necessary to find their diagnostic characters.

Moreover, molecular data suggest a hybrid status of some divergent lineages of D. It is possible that lineages bearing ancient mitochondrial DNA survived in Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. Jin yoon, little is known of cladoceran biogeography in the montane regions beyond Europe. Only a few trans-Palaearctic phylogeographic studies exist.

Our previous studies of the genetic structure of the D. These initial studies indicated the potential for endemic species and haplotypic structure in the D. Still, the phylogenetic position of this taxon is fire journal safety Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA no available genetic data exists for D.

Here we aimed: (1) to evaluate the level of endemism for the D. The study did not involve any endangered or protected species. Sampling in the natural reserves of Russia (Azas Federal Natural Reserve and former Thrombate (Antithrombin)- FDA Zakaznik) was conducted with special permissions of their Administration.

Mongolian samples were collected by the Joint Russian-Mongolian Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA Biological Expedition with permission of the Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism of Mongolia. Original sequences were obtained here for specimens from 57 Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA of Russia and Mongolia (Fig 1, S1 Table).

Most these water bodies were located in the Southern Siberia in basins of large Siberian rivers: Yenisei (with its largest affluent, the Angara, starting from Tuberculin (mono-vaccine) (Mono-Vacc)- FDA Baikal) and Ob (with its largest affluent, sanofi com Irtysh), but some additional samples from Yakutia (Lena basin), Ural Mountains, Kamchatka Isuprel (Isoproterenol)- FDA and European Russia are added.

Upper panela map of Southern Siberia and Mongolia; lower panelglobal map. Shapes of different colors correspond to different species, namely: red squares, D. One to ten individuals per population were selected for mitochondrial DNA analysis. The PCR products were separated on 0.

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