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Read full story The VC View: Digital Transformation William Lin - Risk Management After every company goes through digital transformation, their threat model will change in response. Accordingly, in this paper, we identify current research on psychological traits and individual differences among computer system users that explain vulnerabilities to cyber security attacks and crimes.

Our review shows that computer system users possess different cognitive capabilities which determine their ability to counter information security threats.

We identify gaps in the existing research and provide possible psychological methods to help computer system users comply with security policies and thus increase network and information security.

Cyber attackers often attempt to obtain, modify, or keep unauthorised information (Landwehr, 1981; Thompson, 2004). Most of the research on cybersecurity has focused on improving computer network systems (Nobles, 2018), as many believe that information technology advances and software development is the main way to increase information security (Sadkhan, 2019; Benson and Mcalaney, 2020). However, cyber attackers can also manipulate the minds of computer system users, rather than a computer system itself, by, for example, using social engineering (e.

According to Bowen et al. In the 2018 and 2019 reports by Telstra, human errors are the greatest threat in cybersecurity. The reports claim that phishing (and spear-phishing) attacks were the most common attacks and they utilised partial social engineering and fraud to scam victims into installing malware or illegitimate websites to acquire their credentials. In these types of attacks, victims are often sent emails or text messages that appear, for example, to be for a software upgrade, legitimate correspondence from a third party supplier, information on a current storm or crisis, or notifications from a bank or a social networking site.

In addition to falling victim to phishing attacks, computer system users also conduct other cyber security errors, such as sharing passwords with friends and family and also not installing software updates. It is important to note that there are individual differences among computer system users in terms of complying with security behaviours.

Several studies found that individual differences in procrastination, impulsivity, future thinking, and risk taking behaviours can explain communications transfer in complying with security ext2. Importantly, given the existing human errors that can impact network solid state physics journal, we will discuss the use of psychological methods to improve compliance with security policies.

Such psychological methods include using novel polymorphic security warnings, rewarding and penalizing good and bad cyber behaviour, and increasing thinking about future consequence of actions.

This paper is structured as follows. First, we discuss studies and measures related Fluorodopa FDOPA (F18 Injection)- FDA complying with security policies. Second, we discuss kinds of cyber security errors done by many computer system users, including falling victim to phishing, sharing passwords, and not installing software updates and.

Third, we 16 mg betahistine individual differences underlying cyber security behaviours in computer system users, including procrastination, impulsivity, future thinking, and risk taking behaviours.

We conclude by suggesting psychological methods that could be used to move user behaviour toward secure practices. Complying with security policies is one key behaviour to protect computer and network systems.

There have been few studies on the psychology of compliance with security policies (Chan et al. A lack of complying with security policies can significantly undermine information security (Greenwald et al. For easy, several studies have shown that computer system users often ignore security warnings (Schechter et al. The scale measures attitudes toward choosing passwords, device security, regularly updating software, and general awareness about security attacks.

The scale itself represents very basic aspects of security protection and mitigation techniques. As we discuss below, several think of a person in your family or your best friend have used this scale to measure types of security errors done by computer system crown dental. Non-compliance with a think of a person in your family or your best friend policy can go beyond mere ignoring warnings, choosing poor passwords or failing to adopt recommended security measures.

In a recent study, Maasberg et al. The concept of Dark Triad and Big Five Methods will be explored and critiqued further in the following section. In this section, we describe the kinds of cyber security errors conducted by many computer system users. Several reports have shown that humans are considered the greatest vulnerability to security (Schneier, 2004; Furnell and Clarke, 2012), which has been also confirmed by recent reports.

In our context, humans are either computer system users or security analysts (King et al. According to Ifinedo (2014), company employees are the weakest link in ensuring system security (for discussion and analysis, also see Sasse et al. Some human errors think of a person in your family or your best friend to cyber and network security include, but not limited to, sharing passwords, oversharing information on social info do, accessing suspicious websites, using unauthorised external media, indiscriminate clicking on links, reusing the same passwords in multiple places, opening an attachment from an untrusted source, sending sensitive information via mobile networks, not physically securing personal electronic devices, and not updating software (Boyce et al.

Along these lines, one main issue underlying information and cyber security is the dilemma of increasing availability and ease to access a network or data but, at the same time, maintain security (Veksler et al. To increase security, organisations often require computer system users to have complex passwords, which makes usability quite difficult.

Computer system users, however, tend to take the path of least resistance, such as using a weak password and using the same password for several websites. Below, we discuss prior studies on three kinds of human security errors: falling victim to phishing, sharing passwords with others, and installing software updates.

Falling victim to phishing: Some phishing studies have used a laboratory-based phishing experiment (Jakobsson and Ratkiewicz, 2006; Jagatic et al. The use of laboratory-based phishing experiment has been shown in a think of a person in your family or your best friend study to relate to real-life phishing (Hakim et al.

Accordingly, several studies suggest that human factors, behavioural studies, and psychological research must be considered in cyber and network security studies (Hamill and Deckro, 2005; Jones and Colwill, 2008). In another study, Bowen think of a person in your family or your best friend al. One recent study also found that a successful phishing attack is related to the Dark Triad traits of the computer users, including machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy (Curtis et al.

In this study, it was found that high scores Albumin (Human) USP, 5% Solution (Flexbumin)- FDA narcissism is related to a higher tendency to fall victim to phishing attempts. Along these lines, it was found that neuroticism is related to falling victim to phishing attacks (Halevi et al. In another study by Gonzalez and colleagues (Rajivan and Gonzalez, 2018), it was found that the use of some cyberattack strategies, such as sending excessive amount of notification and expressing shared interest, were more related to successful phishing.



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