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Multiple iatrogenic causes of 18F-FDG uptake have been shares astrazeneca these include axillary nodal uptake from the infiltration of an 18F-FDG dose and pericatheter uptake from tracheostomies, central venous catheters, chest tubes, gastrostomy tubes, shares astrazeneca other drainage tubes.

Various interventions can produce uptake in healing wounds; these include sternotomy, needle biopsies, mediastinoscopy, thoracotomy, and talc pleurodesis (Fig. Radiation has been shown to produce pneumonitis (Fig.

Asymmetric vocal cord uptake may be caused by paralysis of one of the vocal cords by compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. One of the treatments for vocal cord paralysis, which involves Teflon (DuPont) injection, also may cause focal 18F-FDG uptake (162). CT demonstrates left posterior pleural thickening.

Hypermetabolism is associated with this area of pleural thickening. Additional sites of pleural hypermetabolism were seen throughout left pleural space on whole-body images.

Patient had had pleurodesis in past, consistent with current findings. Associated hypermetabolism is seen. Possible Causes of False-Positive Findings in 18F-FDG PET Studies in ChestA qualitative comparison of tumor uptake shares astrazeneca be sufficient to determine whether viable tumor is present shares astrazeneca therapy. A quantitative analysis may be necessary during treatment to predict subsequent tumor response (125). Table 7 lists the factors involved in the tumor uptake of 18F-FDG.

Multiple other factors, aside from tumor metabolism, affect 18F-FDG uptake (163,164). The partial-volume effect resulting from the shares astrazeneca spatial resolution of PET causes an underestimation of the true activity present. Factors That Can Affect Measured 18F-FDG Uptake Within Tumors (125)Tumoral uptake of 18F-FDG increases with increasing time between injection and scanning.

Glucose levels cause changes in 18F-FDG uptake because of direct competition with glucose for shares astrazeneca. Finally, 18F-FDG is not identical to glucose. To quantify the rate of metabolism of glucose, a conversion factor is used, but this constant also varies with the type of tissue examined.

Table 8 summarizes the common sources of SUV measurement error. Common Sources of Errors in Shares astrazeneca of SUV (125)As alluded to previously, there are multiple avenues of investigation that could be used to improve the ability of PET to diagnose and stage malignancies.

In a study of 8 patients with 13 thoracic tumors, the researchers compared the SUVs of the tumors determined by attenuation correction with conventional helical CT (HCT) versus averaged CT with respiratory gating (ACT) (166). A significant reduction in diaphragmatic misregistration also was found with shares astrazeneca ACT images. The researchers concluded that ACT provides a more accurate shares astrazeneca map for SUV quantitation.

Further investigation is warranted, but it appears that respiratory gating provides potential improvements in quantitative and shares astrazeneca evaluations of thoracic malignancies. A second avenue of investigation involves image processing and display formats for enhanced reader detectability. A third avenue of investigation is the determination of the potential benefit bacopa other PET radiotracers compared with the benefit of 18F-FDG.

Other radiotracers, such as 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) and 18F-fluorocholine (18F-FCH), are being investigated for use in lung cancer. They concluded that 18F-FLT had a higher specificity shares astrazeneca malignant lung tumors; however, 18F-FLT was less accurate for N staging and M staging. They concluded that 18F-FLT was not useful in the staging or restaging of NSCLC. Shares astrazeneca, 18F-FCH has been compared with 18F-FDG as a potentially useful tumor imaging agent.

They found similar radiotracer uptake in the known tumors, without clear improvement with 18F-FCH over 18F-FDG. Neither 18F-FLT nor 18F-FCH has shown clear improvement over 18F-FDG shares astrazeneca this time; therefore, they have no role at present. CONVENTIONAL IMAGING OF LUNG NODULES The definition of a solitary pulmonary nodule is an opacity in the lung parenchyma that measures up to 3 shares astrazeneca and that has no associated mediastinal adenopathy or atelectasis.

Patterns of calcification in pulmonary nodules. STAGING OF LUNG CANCER Before 1996, there were 2 mediastinal lymph node classification schemes. View this shares astrazeneca inlineView popupTABLE 4 TNM Classification of Lung CancerPatient survival in relation to stage of disease.

COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF STAGING BY PET The cost-effectiveness of PET for eddie johnson staging of NSCLC has shares astrazeneca extensively studied in multiple health care systems.



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