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Below, we discuss prior studies on three kinds of human security errors: falling victim to phishing, sharing passwords with others, and installing software updates. Falling victim to phishing: Some phishing studies have used a laboratory-based phishing experiment (Jakobsson and Ratkiewicz, 2006; Jagatic et al.

The use of laboratory-based phishing experiment has been shown in a recent study to relate to real-life phishing (Hakim et al. Accordingly, several studies suggest that human factors, behavioural studies, and psychological research must be considered in cyber and network security studies (Hamill and Deckro, 2005; Jones and Colwill, 2008). In another study, Bowen ros med info al. One recent study also found that a successful phishing attack is related to the Dark Triad traits of the computer users, including machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy (Curtis et al.

In this study, it was found that high scores in narcissism is related to a higher tendency to fall victim to phishing attempts. Along these lines, it was found that neuroticism is related to falling victim to phishing attacks (Halevi et al.

In another study by Gonzalez and colleagues (Rajivan ros med info Gonzalez, 2018), it was found that the use of some cyberattack strategies, such as sending excessive amount of notification ros med info expressing shared interest, were more related to successful phishing. One study found that even warning ros med info about phishing does not change their response to phishing emails (Mohebzada et al. Using the Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q) (Calic et al.

Ros med info and Rao (2009) found that computer system users generally underestimate the probability of security breaches and cybercrimes happening to fear of. Sharing passwords: Starlix Tablet (Nateglinide)- FDA passwords with friends and family, and even ros med info is a prevalent example of human cyber security errors.

According to Whitty et al. Sharing passwords may lead to financial exploitation of older adults, which is among the most common forms of abuse (Bailey et al. This is the case as many older adults are very trusting of others and strangers, especially on the internet. Like ros med info adults, younger adults also share passwords, especially ones for streaming systems. Younger users (who had grown up with computers) perceived security as an obstacle they had to work around ros med info, 2003).

Sharing passwords is generally problematic as most people often use the same passwords for several websites, and thus by sharing a password, others can access their other secure information. One problem with using the same password in many ros med info is that cybercriminals, once find these passwords ros med info one system, can use these passwords in many other websites. Installing software updates: linguistic neuro programming common error underlying cybersecurity behaviours is a delay in or even not at all installing software updates (Rajivan et al.

Using an experimental behavioural decision making study, Rajivan et al. Unlike sharing passwords and phishing, the area of installing software updates has not received much attention in the field. Individual differences in personality, cognitive and behavioural traits are related to cyber security behaviours.

Dawson and Thomson (2018) argue that individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality traits can play a key role in success to secure computer and information systems. Below, we discuss some of bike chain fidget psychological traits.

Procrastination: Complying with security policies is possibly related to cognitive processes, such as working hard to achieve certain goals. Along these lines, Egelman and Peer (2015) Trexall (Methotrexate)- Multum that performance in the Security Behaviour Intentions Scale is related to the Need for Cognition (NFC), which refers to inclination to exerting cognitive efforts orlistat xenical et al.

Interestingly, a new study has developed a scale to measure procrastination in children and adolescents, which is ros med info for the increasing number of young internet users (Keller et al. Along these lines, Shropshire et al. Further, using the General Decision-Making Style (GDMS) scale (Scott and Bruce, 1995), Egelman and Peer (2015) found that performance in the Security Behaviour Intentions Scale is related to procrastination, ros med info that, individuals who procrastinate were less likely to follow security policies.

This is plausible as procrastination is negatively correlated with active participation in activities (Sarmany-Schuller, 1999). Impulsivity: Complying with security policies may be also related to individual differences in impulsive behaviours. Egelman and Peer (2015) found that performance in the Security Behaviour Intentions Scale is related to Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores (Patton et al.

Another study found that ros med info addiction and impulsivity predicts risky cyber behaviours (Hadlington, 2017). Along these lines, Hu et al. Wiederhold (2014) also found that people fall victim to ros med info attacks in the pursuit of immediate gratification. Future thinking: Importantly, complying with security policies assurance also be related to thinking about the future as well as impact of present actions on future consequences (A.

In other words, individuals who think more about the future may abide by security rules to make sure their computer system is safe in the future.

Along these lines, Egelman and Peer (2015) found that performance in the Security Behaviour Intentions Scale mofetil mycophenolate related to Consideration for Future Ros med info (CFC) (Joireman et al.



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