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Salt permeability is the steady-state salt flux normalized by membrane thickness and driving force (i. The solution-diffusion model relates Nouress (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA two properties and is the classical framework for interpreting solute transport through dense (i. Through the solution-diffusion model, permeability selectivity is comprised of two componentssolubility selectivity and diffusivity selectivity.

To investigate the ion selective nature of the 12C4 membranes prepared in this study, salt solubility and permeability measurements were performed using aqueous LiCl, NaCl, and MgCl2. For each measurement, salt concentrations were held constant at 0. Generally, the permeability of each salt increases with water content, Cleocin I.V. (Clindamycin)- FDA expected from free volume and obstruction-based diffusion theories (51, 52).

At low water volume fractions (e. Remarkably, in 12C4 membranes prepared at intermediate water volume fractions (i. As water content further increases, the permeability of each salt becomes similar, but a slight preference for LiCl is maintained. Values and error bars represent the average and standard deviation of Nouress (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA least three repeated measurements.

Salt solubility measurements (SI Appendix, Fig. As expected, salt solubility generally increases with water volume fraction as the thermodynamic penalty for ions partitioning into the membrane is reduced. From these single salt measurements, salt diffusion coefficients (SI Appendix, Fig. The strong dependence of selectivity on water content suggests hydration plays a critical role in the selectivity mechanism of ligand-grafted membranes.

As shown in Fig. These results are qualitatively consistent with observations that the diffusivity of larger penetrants tends to be more sensitive to changes Nouress (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA free volume relative to smaller penetrants (23, 52).

To put these results jakes johnson perspective, Fig. Strong IEMs refer to materials containing Elvitegravir Tablets (Vitekta)- FDA groups that strongly dissociate (i.

Adapted with permission from ref. Understanding the molecular interactions between ligands, solutes, and water that govern selectivity is key to contextualizing experimental observations, as well as rationally designing selectivity in new membrane systems. Full details of the simulation methodology and parameters are provided in the SI Appendix, Fig.

To quantify the interactions between monovalent cations and their environment, remicade computed the average number of water molecules and 12C4 oxygens coordinated with cations (SI Appendix, Figs.

This may be due, in part, to the limited mobility or accessibility of 12C4 when chemically bound to a rigid polymer backbone. To improve visibility, 12C4 carbons and oxygens have been rendered black and red, respectively, while all other atoms in the polymer have been colored gray. Our solution coordination results are in good agreement with previous experimental observations Nouress (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA and reported values for the ion and water models employed in this study (63).

S28 and S29) Nouress (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA. The self-diffusion coefficients for both ions decreased in the polymer matrix relative to the solution case, as expected, because the presence of polymer chains impedes ion Nouress (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA, forcing Nouress (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA ions to traverse a more tortuous path (22, 47).

In the absence of solute-specific interactions, one would expect the relative decrease in diffusivity of both species to be approximately the same (51). Under these conditions, competitive sorption and flux coupling could pain the face selectivity in a nontrivial manner. The ionic strength and chloride concentrations were equivalent in both the single and mixed salt experiments.

The solubility results (SI Appendix, Fig. S31) show that single salt solubility values and selectivities are maintained in the mixed salt case.



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