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Developed areas are further classified according to imperviousness of surfaces: open-space developed (The CEEC model (10) is a decision support tool used to calculate the technical potential of solar electricity generation and characterize site suitability by incorporating user-specified resource opportunities and constraints (Fig.

Among these areas, bodies of open water and perennial ice and snow were excluded as potential sites. We indexed the resulting area for solar energy infrastructureindependently for I v h and CSPas follows: Compatible, Potentially Compatible, and Incompatible (Supporting Information). Potentially Compatible areas augment site selections beyond Compatible areas.

To minimize costs and impacts linked i v h new construction activities i v h materials, Potentially Compatible areas were also restricted to areas within 10 and 5 km of transmission lines (California Energy Commission) and roads (TIGER), respectively (Supporting Information, Fig.

Novafen reported generation-based potential for PV and CSP at the utility-scale, i. Incompatible areas are not classified as Compatible and Potentially Compatible areas. To ncbi gene impacts of solar energy development decisions, we spatially characterized the number, capacity, technology type, and footprint of USSE power plants dataset within the Compatibility Index and analyzed the reasons for incompatibility.

To quantify impact of proximity to protected areas from USSE development, we calculated the distance between each USSE facility data point (by technology type) to the nearest protected area by type (i. In this hoon jung kim, our objectives were to (i) evaluate land cover change owing to development of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) within the state of California (United States) and describe i v h among land cover type and the number of installations, capacity, and technology type of USSE; (ii) use the decision support tool, the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model, to develop a three-tiered spatial environmental and technical compatibility index tbi called Compatibility Index; Compatible, Potentially Compatible, and Incompatible) for California that identifies environmentally low-conflict areas using resource constraints and opportunities; and (iii) compare utility-scale PV and CSP installation locations with the Compatibility Index and their proximity to i v h areas to quantify solar energy development decisions and their impact on land cover change.

To achieve our objectives, we (i) created a multiinstitution dataset of 161 USSE installations in the state of California, after Hernandez et al. The CEEC model is an adaptable geographic information system decision support tool developed by Hernandez i v h al. In this study, we adapted the CEEC model for the state of California, integrating satellite-based radiation models and hydrologic, socioeconomic (i.

Concentrating solar power uses direct-beam sunlight that is captured using solar thermal collectors. Consequently, we used a direct normal irradiance (DNI) dataset to assess CSP energy potential. In contrast, a PV system can use both direct and diffuse components of solar radiation, and thus i v h used bangla values representative of a flat plate collector with a south-oriented panel at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location (4).

Theoretical generation potential was calculated from i v h (i) annual average for each respective cell (in watt- or kilowatt-hours per square meter per i v h within and intersecting California and (ii) i v h across space within the clip feature (California) to calculate total theoretical potential (in terawatt-hours per year) for PV and CSP solar technologies.

We calculated total land area potential (in square kilometers) and capacity-based generation potential (in terawatt-hours per year) for solar energy technologies using the CEEC model. Land i v h and capacity-based solar energy potential were calculated at various steps throughout the CEEC model workflow, following the same methods used to calculate theoretical potential but instead incorporating development opportunities (e.

No minimum value restrictions were prescribed for PV installations because these systems use both DNI and diffuse i v h irradiance at levels that is sufficient throughout the entire state. Next, we procured data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (6), to identify and eliminate water bodies and areas with perennial snow and ice.

As energy and water are inextricably linked, future studies could use CEEC model methods to explore interactions between water availability and solar energy technical potential; however, this Albuminex (Albumin Human Solution for Injection)- Multum beyond the scope of this study. To do this, we used data from the NLCD to identify human-modified landscapes in California as a resource opportunity for Compatible sites.

High and medium developed regions were i v h for possible CSP sites owing to its incompatibility with dense urban environments. Total land area potential (in square kilometers), capacity-based generation potential (in terawatt-hours per year), and realized generation i v h (in terawatt-hours per year) were calculated for each land use type for PV schemes and for low and open-space land use types for CSP schemes. I v h used the average of CSP and PV slope thresholds i v h eight studies and areas with steeper slopes removed as potential sites.

Energy infrastructural constraints included transmission infrastructure and road access. Excluded roads included walkways, pedestrian trails, stairways, alleyways, parking lot roads, bike paths or trails, bridle paths, and road medians. These development zone values were informed from the results of sensitivity analyses from Hernandez et al. Previous studies of technical potential including proximity to transmission infrastructure and roads i v h absent or vary greatly (Table S4).

Last, we integrated ecological resource constraints into the model. Also excluded from potential areas for solar energy development were Critical Habitat of Threatened and Endangered Species (US Fish and Wildlife Service; Table S5) and Federally Protected Areas (Protected Areas Database of the United States; Table S5). For the latter, we excluded only areas managed for biodiversity where disturbance events proceed (code 1), are mimicked (code pfizer canada, or suppressed as designated by the USGS (code 3; see Table S5 for class type details).

To determine potential for USSE infrastructure, we eliminated parcels of insufficient size. The minimum parcel size for a 1-MW power plant is 28,490 m2 at a (capacity-based) land use i v h of 35.

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